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This meeting was postponed due to Hurricane Isabel and the State of Emergency declared the night before by the Governor to begin at 7 AM.


The meeting was called to order at 7 PM by President Phil Snyder and was attended by 14 members and guests. The minutes of the last meeting were read by Vice President Ron Cleaves and approved as read. The Treasurer's report was read by Ralph Stevens and approved as read. He indicated that we ended up in the black (just) after revenues less costs from the Toronto Trolley Trip. There was no National Director's report. The "volunteers" for this year's Election Committee are: Alan Patterson,  Frank Ferguson, and Mike Burkhart. There was lengthy discussion of recent storm damage from the Monday BEFORE the hurricane on 9/15 to the Wilmington & Western and Brandywine Valley Railroads due to severe flooding. Richard Hall pointed out that there were numerous errors in the reprint of the W&W handout that was reprinted in  The Transfer Table a few months ago and it should not be quoted due to those inaccuracies. Dan Frederick reported on his trip to Washington state. Frank Ferguson reported on his (and Kermit Geary's) trip to Brazil. Frank also mentioned his (and Greg Ajamian's) trip to Sand Patch. After the break, Phil Snyder showed dozens of  slides of the damage along the W&W. The scheduled program was to have been part 3 of Phil's cross-country trip. But he agreed to swap months with Frank Ferguson who might not be back from his next trip in time for the October meeting. Frank Ferguson treated us to another wonderful show consisting of Snow Shots & Night Shots. His message was "do NOT put the camera away" when the cold weather and white stuff hits! He evidently gets around A LOT in the snow, and has been doing so for quite some time, as we saw E-8's in service on Horseshoe Curve, scenes of Harper's Ferry (before the new platforms), D&H, Guilford, Susquehanna, and Metroliners on the Corridor. We saw wintry views of the East Broad Top, and the #614 hauling coal in Hinton. As if all that wasn't enough inspiration, he then treated us to a tray or more of  Night Shots including Golden, Colorado, Ontario Northland, and North Conway. We even saw the "Triple Cross" being staged in daylight leading to the famous night shot. It was another really great show!


This will be a large issue as I will probably not be able to get a full newsletter out for next month. Also, I have a backlog of articles. I decided to go with Richard Hall's latest two articles as they cover more timely subjects than the many others of his that I have yet to print. I also had to delay the Kent Cty. article one more time. Hope you enjoy what's here.


   On behalf of our Chapter, The Transfer Table, and our Chapter Archives, I have thanked Heywood "Woody" Massara for his generosity and thoughtfulness. He recently contacted me via E-mail and then sent along his personal stash of vintage Wilmington Chapter newsletters. It included a smattering of issues from 1972 to 1977, fairly complete issues from 1978 to 1983, and a further smattering in '84, '85, '87, and '89. He also reported that he was supposed to replace the side bearings on the Florida Gulf Coast's ex L&N Lounge the "Kentucky Club", but a tropical depression delayed the work enough to give him time to get by the Post Office and mail the newsletters. He also asked me to, "Tell all the old timers from the chapter charter members I said 'Hi'." I'm certain many long-time members will be glad to read that he is still involved!

    The Friends of Amtrak reported in an E-mail to their members on August 27, 2003 that it was "Time To Fight The Ambush". As the federal budget deficits grows and state governments in the worst financial crisis since World War II, the President's team proposed shifting much of the responsibility for Amtrak to the states and the plan would have states contract with "third party operators" to provide service.
    The Friends of Amtrak website now has new photos showing a couple of Amtrak RDCs (Rail Diesel Cars) on the Springfield Line en route to New Haven, CT in 1981. at
    The fifth and latest edition of the excellent travel guide, "USA by Rail", by Friends of Amtrak supporter John Pitt, had just been published. More information, including a cover photo, can be found here:

    Our Trolley Driver, Bill Monaghan, sent this report by E-mail: The New PCC Car For Girard Avenue SEPTA Route 15 = PCC Car 2320. The update to the Trolleys Drivers Web Page has photos of 2320, the first of 18 rebuilt PCC Cars came back from Brookville Equipment Company for SEPTA's Route 15 trolley line. PCC car 2320 arrived at Elmwood Depot On September 9, 2003. The New PCC Cars have air conditioning, wheelchair lift, disc brakes, new AC traction motors, outside mirrors, inside and outside PA, Stainless steel seating with cloth-upholstered, turn signals, original style "Art Deco lighting". Seating Capacity with out two wheelchairs 46 with two wheelchairs 40. All Photos are at Elmwood Depot: Length 46 feet, Width 8 feet 5 inches, Height 11 ft 9 in. [from Bill Monaghan's website ].

    Norfolk Southern Corporation's Exhibit Car, a rebuilt passenger rail car with displays depicting the history and modern operation of the Norfolk Southern transportation system. includes a locomotive simulator, the car's most popular display, puts guests in the engineer's seat in control of throttle, brake and horn. On Oct. 24-26, it will be in Wellsboro, Pa. and Dec. 5-7, Strasburg Railroad, Strasburg, Pa.

    The Smithsonian's National Museum of American History will open its largest-ever exhibition, America on the Move, on Nov. 22. The 26,000-square-foot exhibition will anchor the General Motors Hall of Transportation and will feature more than 300 transportation artifacts-from an 1810s National Road marker to the 199-ton, 92-foot-long "1401" locomotive to a 1970s shipping container-showcased in period settings. [from
    In recognition of General Motors' support, the hall is named the General Motors Hall of Transportation and will include two exhibitions, "America on the Move" and a companion exhibition, "On the Water: Stories from Maritime America," to open at a later date. 
    Initial support for the exhibition came through a $3 million congressional appropriation made in 1997. The funds  came to the museum through the U.S. Department of Transportation. General Motors is the principal sponsor with $10 million, State Farm Companies Foundation provided a $3 million gift and the History Channel's $3 million contribution includes production of several of the extensive video elements in the show. AAA, the nation's largest motoring and leisure travel organization, is contributing $2.3 million and ExxonMobil Foundation is supporting the show with $2 million. Both groups are including national marketing initiatives as part of their donation. There are five $1 million donors to the exhibition: the American Public Transportation Association (APTA); the American Road and Transportation Builders Association (ARTBA); the Association of American Railroads (AAR); the National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA) and the UPS Foundation.
    The funding will cover the complete renovation of the museum's Hall of Transportation; the production and installation of the "America on the Move" exhibition with multi-media elements including videos and "sound scapes" in period settings; a national education program; public programs; a Web site; promotional activities; and maintenance for the show. The cost of the hall renovation and the exhibition together is approximately $22 million.
    The congressional funds enabled the museum to develop the exhibition script and design before any private sector fundraising began. Most of the museum's transportation exhibitions have not been significantly remodeled since the museum opened in 1964. [from ]

    The Smithsonian's America on the Move exhibit will feature a new companion Web site to debut at this address in November. The site will feature material from the exhibition, plus behind-the-scenes accounts of the making of the exhibition and more stories from curators about our objects and their place in American history-focused looks at topics ranging from maritime history to motorcycles, from racing to radiator emblems, and an examination of broader issues such as migration, gender, globalization, and technology. A powerful search tool will provide access to hundreds of objects in the transportation collections. And students and educators will find a variety of educational games and teaching aids. Future Web Site -

    The Smithsonian Moves Three Historic Locomotives weighing up to 25 tons each, the Smithsonian Institution has relocated three of its most important artifacts from the  history of American transportation.   
    The three coordinated moves occurred in January and February, 1999. The locomotive Pioneer of 1851 went to Bethlehem, Pa., on long-term loan to the National Museum of Industrial History, an independent museum affiliated with the Smithsonian. The Olomana of 1883 went to the Smithsonian's Arts & Industries (A&I) Building for a new exhibit on Americans of Japanese ancestry in Hawaii. And the Jupiter of 1876 went to the National Museum of American History (NMAH) for exhibit in the Railroad Hall. [ from ].

    The News Journal reported on 9/10/2003 that a Smyrna man who was hit by an NS train was charged with driving (his lawn mower) under the influence after police said he drove his lawn tractor across railroad tracks and was hit by a 21-car freight train. The Norfolk Southern freight train was reportedly northbound and approaching a section of track that crosses a privately owned drive. The man who was mowing the lawn there evidently tried to cross the tracks in front of the train that had slowed to about 15 mph after seeing him.

Note: This copyrighted article was written for the "Transfer Table", the newsletter of the Wilmington Chapter of the National Railway Historical Society by Chapter Member Richard E. Hall © Richard E. Hall 2003


    The roundhouse built by the Philadelphia Baltimore & Washington Railroad as part of the extensive Wilmington improvements of 1906 and the latter addition have now passed into history. The two old roundhouses existing in Wilmington at the time it was built were outdated, crowded and not arranged for efficient operation. The newer of the two roundhouses was on Second St., between Pine and Church Streets, it was also in the way of the planned elevation of the tracks through Wilmington. It had been built in 1875 and was erected on piling because of the marshy ground in the area. The outdated car shops between Third and Fourth Streets, with their doors at the edge of Church St. and extending back almost to the Christina River with some tracks crossing the one block long Bridge Ave at the rear of the shop buildings. Part of the old car shops were also in the way of the proposed elevated line.
    The older roundhouse and locomotive shops were located between Water St. and the Christina River, extending from French St. to midway between Walnut St. and Poplar St., the center of the turntable was about where the west side of Walnut St. would have been. The 23 stall roundhouse only had 22 tracks entering it and six extended through to the boiler shop, between the roundhouse and the Christina River and four other tracks extended through the roundhouse.
    Those facilities were in an area where it was planned for a new PB&W office building to be built. At the time, the PW&B did not have a central office building, some offices were in the PW&B passenger station, but most were scattered through the City of Wilmington, some even in converted houses in residential areas of the city. The Engineering Office of the Maintenance of Way Department was located in Havre de Grace, not exactly convenient to the main offices of the railroad company. The land where the new PB&W shops and roundhouse were to be built outside of Wilmington had been acquired by the PW&B for that purpose in the late 1880 era.
    Locomotive coaling was handled by having a coal bridge spanning the main line and yard tracks. The coal bridge was located between Lombard and Pine Streets just west of the Second Street grade crossing which appears to have been removed because of the roundhouse. Two tracks leading to the turntable and locomotive storage tracks were just east of the coal bridge, one of the tracks being where the Second St. crossing should be. Two tracks crossed the roundhouse lead tracks and entered a half block long coal shed placed at an angle to the main line and ending at Front Street. The coal was transferred to small cars which were pushed by manpower out on the coal bridge where the coal was dumped from the cars into pockets from which it was loaded into the tenders.
    The area where the new locomotive and part of the car shops were to be built was on solid ground, some of it where a small hill named Todd's Hill was leveled in preparation to building them. Obviously where the name Todd's Cut came into being. The area where the new roundhouse was to be built was on low marshy ground, as was some of the area for the freight yard. Filling in for the roundhouse, locomotive service yard, freight yard, relocated main line and the elevation of the tracks through Wilmington, starting next to the new shop and extending through the city to West Yard, was going to require quite a bit of fill material. Most of the area where the roundhouse was to be built would require filling to a depth of ten feet.
    Building the roundhouse which was intended to eventually have 44 stalls, although only 30 were to be built initially, was a major operation. The roundhouse and some of the other shop buildings required something far more stable than fill dirt and the railroad spent several years in drawing up the plans and making preparations. The following method was used to provide a solid footing in the marsh and the work was begun late in 1902. Some dirt was obtained when Todd's Hill was leveled but far more was  needed for the large area to be filled. Borrow pits were opened to provide the needed fill for both the shop and yard area and also for filling in behind the stone walls and over the arches for elevating the main line tracks through the city of Wilmington.
    There were Articles of Agreement with contractors for providing steam shovels to dig and load gravel and dirt in borrow pits at Farnhurst and in the Hares Corner - State Road area. The loaded trains of dirt and gravel were moved from State Road to New Castle and over the New Castle Cut Off to the Shellpot Branch and to the shop area from the yard or from the loop track to Landlith. Some fill for the main line track elevation also moved that way but it was more convent to move from Farnhurst to the elevated line by way of the "A" bridge and West Yard. Fill material from Farnhurst used in the yard and shop area moved over the New Castle & Wilmington Branch to the connection with the Shellpot Branch, then over the Shellpot Branch to the yard and shop area.
    In order to have a solid base in the marsh on which to build the roundhouse walls, 3,152 wooden piles were driven in groups to make a firm base on which to build a series of stone arches to serve as the foundation for the outside wall. Using the arches saved on the number of piles and amount of masonry required for the foundation. The masonry wall above the arches extended up to the grade line where a concrete cap was pouted in place to support the brick wall of the roundhouse. Cement piers supported the end walls, inside wall and the steel framework of the building. The area around the roundhouse was filled up to the established grade level and the inside was filled up to the level for the cement floor. The south end of the power house and old smith shop, the wheel shop building between the power house and main shop building, were also in an area which required driving piling to support the structures.
    Contract No. 3082 dated April 15, 1902, replaced contract 3079 dated April 4, 1902, which was cancelled and renegotiated with Ryan & Kelley for "the filling, piling, etc., for the new yard of the P. W. & B. R. R. at Shellpot, near Edgemoor, Del." The contracted prices were; Borrowed embankment, Twenty (20) Cents per cubic yard, Piling, driven and cut off, Seven Dollars($7.00) each, Timber framed and erected on pile trestles, Forty-five Dollars ($45) per M.B.M. and White Oak Bridge Ties, in place, Two Dollars and Twenty Cents ($2.20) per tie. There is a later notation Ryan & Kelley submitted a bill for $109,308.20 which was paid on January 31, 1903.
    Other fill dirt from the two borrow pits was used in several other locations beside the new shop and yard. Although there was some excavation and grading done on the change of line between Edgemoor and Landlith, some additional fill was also required. A significant amount of fill material was required for the elevated line through Wilmington from West Yard to the new shops at Edgemoor. Incidentally, the stone retaining wall was intended to extend as far as Edgemoor but difficulty in maintaining a reliable delivery of the stone caused that part of the plan to be abandoned. Fill material from Farnhurst was used for the change of line at Claymont and also at Trainer where the work required the passenger station to be moved back 18 feet from its old location and a portion of the building was removed. On May 25, 1903, Ryan & Kelley contracted to furnish and operate a steam shovel to be used in loading excavated material in railroad cars placed on the siding extending along the borrow pit on the Delaware Division north of State Road. They were to be paid at the rate of .15¢ per cubic yard measured in the excavation and .20¢ per cubic yard if the contractor unloaded the material. There is no time frame shown for this contract to cover or specific amount of material to be moved. Another contract with Ryan & Kelley dated September 14, 1903 has basically the same wording with "to unload the dirt at Shellpot Shops on the Maryland Division; the Railroad Company to furnish the necessary work train service". This contract also lacks a time frame or amount of dirt to be moved, and the payment was to be a flat amount of $1,144.00. There were additional contracts for fill dirt to be excavated from both the State Road and Farnhurst borrow pits for use in the shop and yard areas. An earlier contract had been for a contractor to supply shovels and narrow gauge cars and locomotives to be used in leveling Todd's Hill and using it to fill in some of the marsh.
    The new Wilmington roundhouse built by the PB&W was not regarded as being a typical PRR roundhouse because of the height of the outside walls and large windows. The high roof around the outside of the roundhouse was topped with a monitor having windows in both its outside and inside walls which with the large windows in the outside wall provided far better than average illumination. Drainage for the inspection and work pits was through six inch pipes which drained into the turntable pit. Two of the pits had drop tables for locomotive drivers. Heating was hot air from a fan room forced through an underground duct with tile pipes leading to the outer end of the work pits.
    Locomotive coaling was done from a high trestle with coal pockets and discharge gates and delivery chutes. Loaded hopper cars were pushed up a long earthen ramp leading to the trestle where their coal loads were discharged into the coal pockets for freight or passenger coal. That coaling arrangement lasted until just before World War II. Of the three tracks located alongside of the long earthen ramp, the two outside tracks had inspection pits which were followed by larger ash pits and converged just before reaching the timber coal trestle. Following the coal trestle was a trailing turnout so a locomotive could be moved to the storage tracks if it was not to be turned or did not have to enter the roundhouse. There were tentative plans to enlarge the coal trestle to two tracks and duplicate the inspection and ash pits on the other side of the ramp. The storage track ladder connected with another track leading from the turntable to two short storage tracks. The inbound and outbound locomotive tracks all connected to one track running parallel to the loop track between the yard and Landlith interlocking.
    The replacement of the original 85' long turntable serving the roundhouse at Wilmington with a new 110' long turntable was authorized on May 18, 1918. A report on turntable usage dated January 25, 1918 had indicated the Wilmington enginehouse turntable was then being used 150 times a day. A letter from the Engineer of Bridges & Buildings to the Purchasing Agent dated September 30, 1918, instructed him to ship seven new 100' and nine new 110' turntables to the listed locations. Wilmington had initially been authorized to receive a new 100' turntable, but the P.A. was instructed to ship it to Kiskiminetas Junction and ship the 110' table intended for Kiski Junction to Wilmington instead. By December 10, 1918 the turntable still had not been replaced, the new one had not even been received at Wilmington. Additional requisitions were on file for a new circle rail, coping castings, 220 'of pipe railing for the table and support girders for each end to be used with the new turntable.
    The 110' turntables actually measured 109'6.5" and were to be shipped on three 40' flat cars and supported on pivoting load bolsters mounted on the two end cars, positioned 16' in from the ends of the turntable. As a side note of local interest, the list included a new 100' turntable for the new locomotive facilities at Perryville and a 100' turntable for Marcus Hook. The report of an inspection of turntables made in 1924 gave the Wilmington turntable an overall good report except for the coping walls and the turntable bridge needed painting. There were loose rivets in the turntable girder and the circle rail was out of round and needed realignment. It did point out the rust on the flanges was bad, but other items such as the current collector, motor condition and maintenance and the approach rails and gap between those rails and the bridge rails were all commented on being in a favorable manner.
    The large 250 ton cement coaling and sanding station which replaced the old coal trestle was erected spanning tracks in the locomotive service yard. Except for being slightly larger, it was very similar to the cast cement coaling and sanding stations erected at Perryville and Thurlow about 1920. Regrettably a copy of tracing #68 is not available to show the arrangement before the later revisions were made to the roundhouse and service area. There had been two 7,200 gallon fuel oil storage tanks, probably tanks from old tank cars, placed near the coaling station. They were later replaced with a 250,000 gallon diesel fuel storage tank The roundhouse had been reduced to two sections on opposite sides of the turntable by 1941. On the west side were eleven 90' stalls from the original roundhouse. There were ten tracks in the section on the east side of the approach tracks, the two at the north end each having an 80 ton drop table. The ten tracks in the east section of the roundhouse were in what was listed as being the new enginehouse, but no information on its construction has been found. At 125' long, the tracks in the new enginehouse were somewhat longer than the 90' tracks in the old section on the west side of the turntable. Because of the greater length of the tracks and their closer spacing around the 110' turntable  pit, the inside wall of the new enginehouse was about twice as far back from the pit as the inside wall of the old roundhouse.
    Tracing #68-B , which is dated 6/15/1953, shows some additional changes made in adapting the facilities to servicing diesels. The eleven stalls on the west side were shown as being for servicing diesel locomotives, with most of the tracks in the southern half having work platforms for servicing diesels. It also shows several changes in the track arrangement with most of the steam servicing tracks removed. One track was retained for unloading diesel fuel from tank cars for the 250,000 gallon tank. The double ended wreck train track was located between two cabin car tracks near the running. Not shown on tracing 68-B was a special servicing station to provide coal and water for the wreck derrick. An elevated platform with three sides enclosed formed a coal storage bin which was loaded by a locomotive crane equipped with a clam bucket. The coal bunker on the wreck derrick was located on the right side at the rear, beside the boiler, with a hatch located to the right of the stack. The roof hatch was opened and the coal was shoveled from the platform through the open hatch. There was a pipe and hose for water, the hose being inserted in the hatch to the water tank on the left side of the boiler. The water tanks on the PRR 120 ton wreck derricks like #497016 at Wilmington had been enlarged so they extended farther forward beside the operators station than when new. These derrick servicing facilities typically had a steam pipe so the water in the boiler was always hot.
    Now the roundhouse and the steam locomotive servicing facilities have passed on into history to join the steam locomotives which they had been built to service. The roundhouse is now becoming another fading memory of the once great Pennsylvania Railroad System. © 2003, Richard E. Hall 

Note: This copyrighted article was written for the "Transfer Table", the newsletter of the Wilmington Chapter of the National Railway Historical Society by Chapter Member Richard E. Hall © Richard E. Hall 2003


    Recent newspaper reports pertaining to the rebuilding of the drawbridge on the Shellpot Branch has generated some interest in railroad draw bridges of the Wilmington area. The location of six of the nine moveable railroad bridges, or draw bridges, built in the Wilmington area was on the Christina River and three of those draw bridges carried the tracks of lines operated by the PRR. In fact, only three of the nine railroad draw bridge locations in the Wilmington area were for railroads other than those associated with the PRR. The earliest of Wilmington's railroad draw bridges traces its beginning to the Wilmington & Susquehanna Rail Road, predecessor of the Philadelphia Wilmington & Baltimore Railroad.
    As was typical for the charters granted the early railroads, the Wilmington & Susquehanna was required to build a draw bridge over any navigable creeks or rivers crossed by its tracks. From Colonial times, Wilmington had been an important river port with industries on both the Christiana and Brandywine Rivers. The Brandywine River was an important waterway for ships going upstream as far as Market St. in Wilmington to carry grain to the mills and carry away the barrels of flour bound for Philadelphia, Baltimore and other markets.
    In order to reach the Pennsylvania State line and establish a through line to Philadelphia, a draw bridge was required to cross the Brandywine River or creek, it is referred both ways. It was stated in Delaware law "An Act To Incorporate the Wilmington and Susquehanna Railroad Company, Volume 8, page 133, passed January 18th, 1832, Section 16. That if, in the location of the said railroad, it shall be found necessary to pass over any navigable river or creek by a bridge or other edifice, it shall be the duty of said company to construct and keep in repair a sufficient pass or draw in said bridge or edifice over the channel or deepest part of said river or creek, for the purpose of letting vessels pass and repass through the same, which draw shall at all times, on the approach of any masted vessel or vessels, be drawn at the cost of said railroad company as to admit the free passage of such vessel or vessels." The bridge crossing the Brandywine would have been the first railroad draw bridge built in Wilmington.
    I do not have information available on the original Brandywine draw bridge of how many times it was repaired or replaced. Like most of the railroad between Wilmington and Philadelphia, the bridge was poorly constructed and was in need of repairs in 1838. PW&B drawings #902 to 905 were for the Brandywine Bridge and were dated 1877 but they have not been found. The first replacement I can document was in 1884. The Edgemoor Iron Co. had a contract to supply two 59'6" fixed spans, one 29'4" fixed span and a 94'4" draw span all for the double track Brandywine Creek bridge. The Articles of Agreement was dated November 18, 1884 and the work was to be completed on or before January 18, 1885.
The Brandywine Creek draw bridge was again replaced as part of the extensive Wilmington improvements of the early 1900 era. The new bridge was built for three tracks and had a 78'4" fixed span and a 158' fishbelly plate girder draw span. The wheels on which the draw span rotated were 24" in diameter. A PRR paper headed "Drawbridge Statement, June 18, 1908" gives the speed limit on the Brandywine drawbridge as 30 MPH for all classes of traffic, it was locked with a latch, had steel guard rails and was equipped with smash boards. This may be regarded as a technicality, but we have a second Brandywine draw bridge location made necessary by building the above span. In order to maintain near normal traffic flow while the new draw bridge was being built, the tracks were shifted and a temporary bridge was built just downstream from  the location of the old and new bridge locations. By law, the temporary bridge was required to have a draw span. Although it had been temporary, it was a second drawbridge location on the Brandywine River in Wilmington.
    The New Castle & Wilmington Railroad was chartered on February 19, 1839. The line crossed the Christiana River south of West Yard and required a draw span in the bridge. A letter from Mr. H.F. Kenney, General Superintendent PW&B, dated February 26, 1891 to Mr. William Brown, Chief Engineer PW&B, mentioned the wooden Howe truss there was about seven years old and would need to be replaced sometime during the year. He requested Mr. Brown prepare plans for a single track draw bridge because he doubted they would ever double track the line between Wilmington and New Castle. (On January 1, 1902, Ryan & Kelley contracted for the grading and masonry to complete the double tracking from the Christiana River to the existing double track at Farnhurst.) A blue print #4638 for a shear pole draw span was sent to Mr. Kenney and met with his approval. The fixed steel girder span of this bridge had been replaced in 1886 when Cofrode & Saylor who had signed the contract on December 8, 1886 to have the iron work complete and ready for erecting on or before December 31, 1886.   
    By the late 1880's the railroad traffic situation in Wilmington was becoming a nightmare with the many streets crossing the PW&B main line tracks. It was determined the situation called for a freight line to bypass the street running through the city of Wilmington and the single track Shellpot Branch, or Cut off, came into being in 1888. John A. Kelly of Philadelphia contracted with the PW&B to furnish labor and materials and labor to complete the double track road bed for the Shellpot Branch extending from a point east of Brandywine Station to a point west of Delaware Junction. The contract was signed on February 28, 1887, the work was to be completed on or before August 1, 1887. A contract with Boller & McGaw dated July 9, 1887, was for the foundations complete and all necessary dredging for the two draw bridges on the Shellpot  Branch with completion to be on or before December 31, 1887.
    That was followed by a contract let on July 18, 1887, to furnish all labor, material and perform all work for the double track pile trestles to the draw bridges on the Shellpot Branch. One trestle was 550 feet ± with piles 85 to 90 feet in length and the other to be 400 feet ± with piles 55 to 60 feet in length. It was specified the piles must be of South Carolina or Georgia yellow pine, straight, stripped of all bark and driven at a rate of penetration not exceeding 1.5" per blow of a 2,000 pound hammer falling 10 feet or the equivalent. It is interesting that the bridges and trestles were built as double track while only one track was built on the graded right of way at that time.
    The double track draw bridge which has been known over the years as bridge #1, bridge #3, and bridge 2.46, or the lower bridge, was the one close to what was originally Shellpot Yard, later expanded and known as Edgemoor Yard. Although the right of way was graded and the bridges built for double track, there was only one track laid on the Shellpot Branch. A letter dated March 21, 1902 from Charles E. Pugh, Second Vice President of the PW&B, to A.J. Cassatt, President PRR, stated with the completion of double tracking the Shellpot Branch and increase in its usage, it seemed imperative an interlocking be installed at the connection with the main line south of West Yard. He gave the estimated cost of the interlocking as $9,500.00.
    At the same time the Shellpot Branch was being built, the PW&B contracted on October 12, 1887, for the grading and construction of the six mile long New Castle Branch connecting the Delaware Railroad in New Castle with the new Shellpot Branch at the west end of bridge #1. P. McManus was awarded the contract to grade the line and build a single track railroad. He was to supply all labor and material and build one pile trestle. If the work was completed satisfactorily before the January 1, 1888, date specified in the contract, he would receive the gross sum of $500.00 as a premium.
    On November 11, 1887, the PW&B contracted for both of the Christiana Creek draw bridges for the Shellpot Branch. It was still spelled Christiana back then, but the spelling became illegal by an act of the Delaware Legislature in 1935 when the spelling for the Creek/River legally became Christina and the crossroads town became Christiana to (theoretically) avoid the confusion which still exists. Bridge #1 was to be completed by January 1, 1888, bridge #2 did not have to be completed until January 31, 1888. It is interesting to compare how long the contractor had to build the original bridge with the limited resources of 1888 and how long it is taking to repair by working with the improved technology, equipment and tools of today.
    On April 25, 1888, J.W. Weber of Philadelphia was awarded the contract to paint both iron draw bridges over the Christiana River on the Shellpot Branch. He was to furnish labor and material to paint both of the bridges as specified in accordance with PRR standards. He was to apply three coats of red oxide of iron using the best linseed oil. For painting bridge #1, he was to be paid a gross sum of $1,350.90 to cover his labor and material, and for bridge #2 he was to receive a gross of $1,049.60. Note the PRR color specified for use on iron bridges in the late 1800's was red oxide, not the black some of us remember.
    The Wilmington & Western Railroad built their draw bridge to reach their original station built on C Street when the line opened to Landenberg in 1872. They had to cross the PW&B to reach the river and the agreement for the crossing was signed June 13, 1872. After the W&W built what became known as the Market St. extension to reach their new passenger station between Market and King Streets, the W&W still needed the draw bridge to reach their Christiana River wharf and a few industries. Delaware Law, "Chapter 64, BRIDGE OVER CHRISTIANA RIVER, An Act to Protect the Navigation of the Christiana River. WHEREAS the act of incorporation of the Wilmington & Western Railroad Company authorizes the said company to construct a railroadÉSECTION 1. That the Wilmington & Western Railroad Company, in constructing its road across the Christiana River, shall, and the said company is hereby required to erect and maintain a draw or pivot bridge at the crossing of said stream, etc., Passed at Dover, March 7, 1871".
    The Delaware Western and the B&O continued to use the old W&W draw bridge which later figured in the B&O plan to reach the ferry slip for their ferry connection to the CNJ across the Delaware River. Acts passed in Dover on March 1, 1881, February 26, 1883 and April 15, 1885 transferred the W&W terms for maintaining the Christiana River Draw bridge. The DWRR had negotiated a new agreement for the PW&B crossing on January 15, 1878 so they could reach the Market St. station and draw bridge to South Wilmington. The track leading to the bridge had been in the area of the large WWII Dravo ship yard and today's Riverfront Shops.
    After the ground breaking north of Coatesville, the Wilmington & Reading was built in two sections with the Coatesville to Wilmington section opened first in 1869. The Coatesville to Birdsboro section opened in 1870, but Reading was not reached until 1874. The Wilmington Northern came into existence with a 1876 reorganization of the W&R, then the W&N was leased to the Philadelphia & Reading Company for 999 years in 1900. The Wilmington & Reading also had a draw bridge across the Christiana River which was needed to reach the 3.9 miles of trackage in South Wilmington in 1876. The successors of the W&R continued to use a draw bridge to reach South Wilmington and their Delaware River ferry slip. In contrast to the B&O which had seemed to have an indifferent attitude about developing or expanding their traffic in South Wilmington, the Reading Co. and its predecessors had actively sought to develop and maintain freight traffic in the area.
    What we remember as the Reading Co. draw bridge was essential for them to reach the industries, access to the Wilmington Marine Terminal and later their Pigeon Point ferry slip for the car float service to New Jersey. That was the second draw bridge location for the predecessors of the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad. The Wilmington & Reading built a track which left their line to their Madison St. Terminal a few yards from where the Wilmington & Western crossed the Philadelphia Wilmington & Baltimore and the Wilmington & Reading tracks. The W&R track ran roughly parallel to the W&W in crossing the PW&B but then it angled away from the W&W slightly when that line entered a tangent toward the river. The W&R then established a tangent which placed it about a block south of the W&W when the two lines crossed Justison St. and the W&R crossed the Christina River on a draw bridge only a few hundred feet upstream from the W&W bridge. That draw bridge was soon replaced due to a change in their line entering Wilmington.
    The second Reading Co. draw bridge was located a very short distance upstream from the upper or #2 Shellpot Branch bridge and crossed the Shellpot Branch between the bridge and its main line junction.. The second Reading Co. bridge was later reached by a line from the West Yard area, but at one time in the past there had been a line continuing straight from the bottom of the Maryland Ave. hill, across the PW&B main line at grade and going directly to the second Reading bridge. The W&R track had been built parallel to and on the uphill side of the W&W track from the Browntown area of Wilmington to Canby Woods where the W&W turned left and the W&R swung to the right. The following is an example of how railroading can become somewhat complicated and at time is reminiscent of the old Abbott & Costello "Who's on first?" routine. In order to understand why the Reading draw bridge location was changed we need to look at other parts of the railroad scene. Consider this, what we remember as the Reading Co. track crossing Maryland Ave. was actually the old W&W track while the B&O successor to the W&W crossed Maryland Ave. on what had been the old W&R track.
    The Wilmington & Reading became the Wilmington Northern and the PW&B entered into an agreement to relocate a new crossing farther west, beyond West Yard and using a turntable type crossing removed from the Pomeroy to Delaware City crossing in Newark. The original W&W track swung left at about the edge of Canby Woods and proceeded out to what became East Junction after the B&O line was built. Today's B&O Lane being some of the old right of way. The old Reading line crossed the B&O and arced around through where today's Canby Park Houses were built. Most of the track remained as storage tracks until before WWII when the houses were built there.
    To simplify things, the two companies swapped their tracks from above Maryland Ave. to beyond the bottom of the hill. The Reading built an new line crossing the B&O and connecting with the former W&W in Canby woods. The B&O then established Wilsmere Junction and built a wye and a new track paralleling the new Reading track to connect with the former Reading track in Canby Woods. A switch was put in what was now the Reading line at the bottom of the hill, crossed the PW&B on the turntable crossing and went almost straight to their new draw bridge which was the one we remember. It crossed the PW&B where the PRR MU yard was later located. The crossing at the bottom of Maryland Ave. hill was later abandoned and a new line was built to the draw bridge trailing off the Reading line to their Passenger Station at French & Water Streets in Wilmington. The new line crossed the B&O track leading to the old W&W draw bridge, the W&R track to their original draw bridge which was then an industrial track, a PRR track to the Jessup & Moore Paper Co. and bridged Little Mill Creek before curving around to join the abandoned line to their second draw bridge. The PW&B Shellpot Branch was also crossed before reaching the second Reading draw bridge.
    If you were paying attention to what has been said, you should have noted the first paragraph stated there had been nine draw bridges built in the Wilmington area and only three were on lines not operated by the PRR. Deduct the W&W bridge used by the B&O and the two for the W&R and the Reading Co. and it leaves seven draw bridges. The above description of the bridges associated with the PRR operated lines only covers five draw bridge locations owned by the PB&W. You may have figured out the temporary Brandywine bridge counted as a second Brandywine River draw bridge location and with all of the Christiana River draw bridges accounted for and the W&W and W&R bridges included, our figures should now add up. All of the PB&W and other railroad bridges are indeed accounted for, yet we only have eight draw bridges. We are missing a draw bridge on a line which eventually was operated by the PRR.
    No real problem, its just we often fail to realize things were not always as we have known them to be within our lifetime. If one considers the reduced flow some of us have noticed in the Red Clay Creek over the years the W&W has been running up the Red Clay Valley, it should be no problem understanding some streams were much different when the W&S railroad was being built in the 1830 era. Remember the crossroads town of Christiana was a river port with three wharves to accommodate the shallops and other river boats which were sailed, rowed and polled up the river. Although we don't know at this point, pole boats such as the Durham or the batteaux types  were more likely to have been used on some of the smaller creeks than the larger single mast shallop type. The Durham boats are probably best known for performing another type of service on the Delaware River. A small fleet of Durham boats were used by General George Washington and his men in making the famous Christmas Eve crossing of the Delaware River to successfully engage the British forces during the Revolutionary War.
    The Durham boat had been designed by Robert Durham in 1750 to transport iron for the Durham Furnace located on the upper Delaware River in Pennsylvania. Robert Durham had been employed as the Founder at Principio Furnace and tapped the furnace to cast the first pig iron when the furnace had been put under blast. His Durham 60' long by 8' wide by 42" high boat was an enlarged and refined model of canoes the Susquehannock Indians had used on the Susquehanna River. The Durham boats were equipped with two oars or they could be propelled with iron tipped poles. For a time Durham boats were rowed up the Chesapeake Bay carrying iron ore from pits on the Patapsco River near the then small town of Baltimore, to the iron furnace located on the Principio Creek in Cecil County.
    Both the American Durham, designed to carry up to 15 tons and used on the upper Delaware River, and the batteaux which had preceded it on the Delaware, used poles or oars depending on whether they were going up or down the smaller streams. A rather rough translation of batteaux might be it was poled to get to where it was going. The shallops had a mast located far forward for the use of a sail but were also equipped to use oars. It was a river boat with a wide bottom and shallow draft which permitted it to go up many of the small rivers and creeks feeding into the Delaware River and Bay. As soon as the Dutch settlers were established along the Delaware River, they imported a shallop in knocked down condition. Hundreds of the shallops were built in the many small boatyards found on practically every river and large creek along the Delaware River and Bay in Colonial times. There had been a boat yard on Old Red Clay Creek at the north end of Bread And Cheese Island prior to the War of 1812.
    When the Wilmington & Susquehanna Rail Road was chartered, the Act passed by the Delaware Legislature on January 1, 1832, it was specifically stated in Volume 8, page 133, Section 16 as follows; "That if, in the location of the said railroad, it shall be found necessary to pass over any navigable river or creek by a bridge or other edifice, it shall be the duty of said company to construct and keep in repair a sufficient pass or draw in said bridge or edifice over the channel or deepest part of said river or creek, for the purpose of letting vessels pass and repass through the same, which draw shall at all times, on the approach of any masted vessel or vessels, be drawn at the cost of said company so as to admit the free passage of such vessel or vessels". Because it then flowed at a depth of seven feet, the navigable stream designation was applied to the White Clay Creek at Stanton and a draw bridge was required for the railroad. Work on the bridge was to start in the spring of 1836 and be completed uring the summer.
    We may conclude the volume of water traffic on the White Clay had diminished to virtually none by the mid 1830 era because of the following action in Dover. "A Further Supplement To An Act To Incorporate The Wilmington And Susquehanna Railroad Company", Volume 9, page 59, passed January 15, 1837, after stating the Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore name was to be used in place of the W&S name, gave us the following. "Section 4. That the Wilmington and Susquehanna Railroad Company be and it is hereby authorized to convert the drawbridge erected by it over the White Clay Creek into a permanent bridge, and to keep the draw span thereof at all times closed hereafter, or to dispense altogether with the draw, as they may deem proper: Provided, That if, by accident or otherwise, the said bridge shall be broken down or destroyed, it shall be the duty of the said Wilmington & Susquehanna Railroad Company, and they are hereby required, to erect at their own cost and expense another bridge over the same creek, at the same place and of the same height and dimensions and of the same width between the piers as those of the present bridge." So there it s, there was indeed a eighth railroad draw bridge in the Wilmington area and it is also noteworthy in having such a short active life as a railroad draw bridge. Those early wooden bridges were a source of many problems, in August 1838, the PW&B Chief engineer reported on repairing the stringers which were breaking on the White Clay Creek bridge.
    The Old Boy's in Legislative Hall down in Dover weren't through with the White Clay Creek Bridge yet considering the Second Supplemental Act to the Incorporation of the W&S. In Volume 10, page 121, passed January 30, 1847, is an act regarding the White Clay Creek Bridge. Section 1 stated "That the said Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore Railroad Company be and they are hereby authorized and required, in rebuilding their bridge over White Clay creek in New Castle County to dispense with two of the three piers now supporting said bridge, and to remove the same, so that the middle pier only of the said bridge shall remain, and the spans shall be reduced to two." The second paragraph dealt with the abutments and location of the center pier in the stream and maintaining the existing high water or flood clearance under the bridge. The two wooden truss spans crossing the White Clay Creek were replaced with steel trusses in the late 1800's. The steel truss spans were in turn replaced with two deck girder spans early in the early 1900 era, before the main line electrification. I wonder how much the flood clearance item has changed, I have observed flood water above the bottom chord of the present girder bridge over the White Clay Creek. On the other hand, we have noticed the floods become worse as upstream areas are developed.
    There is one question I have been unable to answer. Was the White Clay Creek draw span ever actually opened to permit a boat to pass through before it was converted to a fixed span? Because of the extremely short time between when it was built in mid 1836 and it was legally permitted to be converted to a fixed span in early 1837, I am inclined to think the White Clay Creek draw bridge may have the questionable distinction of never actually being used to pass a boat through the draw. Law suits and legal action for damages are nothing new, in 1839 Samuel Baily made an unsuccessful attempt to get an act passed in Dover which would authorize him, his heirs and assigns, whenever in his opinion or in the opinion of his heirs and assigns, thought they suffered any damage by the construction of the White Clay Creek bridge, they should be granted damages against the railroad company with having to go sue. For once the good old boys in Dover were smart enough to reject such an act.
    Although not a draw bridge, perhaps some mention of another Brandywine River bridge may be in order because it is otherwise overlooked by history. The General Assembly passed an act in February 25, 1859 and Sections 7 of the act is interesting, especially if you think you know the name of all of the railroads in the Wilmington area. "Section 7. That the Farmers' and Millers' Railroad Company of Brandywine Hundred aforesaid, be, and is hereby authorized to locate, construct and operate by steam power, or otherwise, a railroad of one or more tracks, leading from a point or points between Brandywine and Shellpot creeks, on the track of the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad, by the most advantageous route to the Philadelphia turnpike so called, near the mills of Tatnall and Lea, in Brandywine village and thence across said turnpike and along the north-east side of the valley of Brandywine creek, to some convenient point at or near the lower paper mill of Jessup and Moore, formerly known as Jones' Snuff Mill; also to locate and construct in like manner a track to be operated by horse-power only, across the county bridge connecting of Wilmington with Brandywine village, and in the adjacent streets and highways, so as to accommodate the business of the mills on the Wilmington side of the creek: Provided, that the consent of the levy court commissioners of New Castle county to lay such last-mentioned track shall first be obtained. The connection of the road hereby authorized with the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad, to be made with the consent of the president and directors thereof, and nothing in this act contained to authorize any interruption of or interference with the business of the road last mentioned by the building or operation of the Farmers' and Millers' Railroad".
    Sections 8 to 14 of the act also relate to the Farmers' and Millers' Railroad Company of Brandywine Hundred, locating the line and acquiring land, raising funds through the sale of stock, providing crossings for streets and where land was divided by the railroad and condemnation of land. Of special interest is the following; "Section 13. That in case the requisite amount of stock is not subscribed within three months from the passage of this act, by individuals or corporations, then the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad Company, is hereby authorized to locate and build the whole, or any portion of said branch or branches, and for that purpose all the rights and privileges conferred by this charter shall devolve upon said Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad Company, and this charter shall be merged into and become a part of the charter of said Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad Company, and shall be managed by the president and directors without any separate organization".
    It is interesting to note when the PW&B built the Brandywine River draw bridge, the county bridge was the only bridge crossing the Brandywine within the city limits other than a foot bridge, and no bridges had crossed the Christiana River within the city until 1808. The construction of a second wagon (highway} bridge across the Brandywine was not authorized until the Eleventh St. Bridge in 1867. It seems the railroads could do for themselves what the local politicians, and even private enterprise which could build toll bridges, could not accomplish for the public good.
    If Joseph Perkins and two of his Brandywine Hundred neighbors had been successful in the New Castle Court of Chancery and in Dover, there would have been a tenth draw bridge built in the Wilmington area. n 1839 Joseph Perkins filed suit in the County Court and also tried to have an act passed in Dover, claiming they had suffered damages, without making the specifics known to the public, by the railroad bridge by the fixed bridge of the PW&B crossing Boat Creek in Brandywine Hundred. They wanted to collect for their damages and have an act passed in Dover requiring the PW&B to replace their fixed bridge with a draw bridge over Boat Creek. They were unsuccessful in both legal maneuvers and the fixed bridge was not replaced with a draw bridge over Bar Creek, so we didn't get our tenth draw bridge location in the area.
    You Brandywine Hundred residents never heard of Boat Creek and can't find it on the map? Sorry about that. I have not been able to find it on any old maps either. There are only three creeks in Brandywine Hundred which might have been Boat Creek; Naaman's Creek, Stoney Run and Shellpot Creek. No record has been found for any name other than Naaman's for that creek, but the extreme lower half to three quarters of a mile of what we know as Stoney Run could have been navigated by Durham boats, batteaux and possibly the smaller schallops. Only the schallops had a mast that would require a draw bridge for them to pass. Shellpot Creek was probably navigable up to about where it was crossed by the PW&B bridge, but not more than a few hundred feet beyond the bridge, if at all. An attempt was made to identify Samuel Baily and Jopseph Perkins, but they were not listed in the available registers. Due to the circumstances, it is thought they were both millers. © 2003, Richard E. Hall


Notices, announcements, schedules, etc. are provided here as a service to the members. The Chapter has no affiliation with any commercial operation, museum, or tourist line.

Now through December 7, 2003 - On the Road to Paradise: A History of the Strasburg RR.  An Exhibit at the Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania

October 11-12, 2003 Great Scale Model Train Show - Timonium, 9-4 Saturday, 10-4 Sunday, Maryland State Fairgrounds, Timonium, MD.

October 19, 2003 Susquehanna Valley NRHS Chapter's 10th Annual Train Show Southern Tier Railfest, 10 AM-4 PM, Heritage Country Club, Binghamton, NY call 607-775-1267

October 17-18, 24-25, 31-Nov. 1 2003 Halloween Events @ Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania 6:30 - 9:30 PM Fun-filled evening of ghostly railroading as you visit the Railroad Museum and ride the legendary Strasburg Rail Road. Kids & adults come in costume! . Tickets - One ticket covers both the train ride and Museum admission: $17.95 for ages 12 and up and $10.95 for ages 3 to 11. Combined tickets required, must be purchased only from the Strasburg Rail Road -- at their ticket booth, call the SRR at 717 687-7522 or order them on-line at (Webpage provides details regarding train departure times which you must select, & whether you should plan on visiting the Museum before or after train ride.)

November 8-9, 2003 Troops and Trains @ Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania Sat. 9 - 5, Sun. noon- 5 Greet our guys and gals in uniform and experience the role railroads played time and again in the defense of our nation. Fascinating railroad archival exhibits and displays. Regular admission.

November 8-9, 2003 Taking the Swing Train 40s Dance @ RR Museum of Pennsylvania 7 PM Sound of the Roses 18-piece band. Details.

Sunday, November 2, 2003 26th Annual Railroad,Steamship,Transportation Artifacts Show 9 AM - 4 PM Montgomery County Fairgrounds, Gaithersburg, MD info

Starting, November 22, 2003 Grand Opening and Family Festival "America on the Move" SmithsonianÕs National Museum of American History, Washington, DC

December 13, 2003 to April 19, 2004 PAGEANT OF LOCOMOTIVES @ RR Museum of PA Photography From North American Railroad Fairs = The splendor of the great North American railroad fairs gave companies an opportunity to unveil their latest technologies and display celebrated equipment of the past. This exhibit documents the best known fairs of North America and the excitement generated by each, including the 1876 Centennial Exhibition, Philadelphia; the 1893 Columbian Exposition, Chicago; the 1904 World's Fair, St. Louis; the 1927 B&O Fair of the Iron Horse, Halethorpe, Maryland; the 1939-40 World's Fair, New York; and the 1948-49 Chicago Railroad Fair.

December 27, 2003 Home for the Holidays @ Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania 9 - 5 Nostalgic glimpse at 100 years of holiday rail travel. Meet engineers, conductors, ticket agents and passengers and enjoy seasonal music and festive decorations among our world-class collection of trains. Regular admission.

January 24-25, 2004 Great Scale Model Train Show - Timonium 9-4 Saturday, 10-4 Sunday, Maryland State Fairgrounds, Timonium, MD.

April 3-4, 2004 Great Scale Model Train Show - Timonium 9-4 Saturday, 10-4 Sunday, Maryland State Fairgrounds, Timonium, MD.

May 2, 2004 Baltimore Transportation Memorabilia Show - Timonium 9-4 Sunday, Maryland State Fairgrounds, Timonium, MD. Railroad, Steamship, Bus, Airline

June 19-20, 2004 Great Scale Model Train Show - Timonium 9-4 Saturday, 10-4 Sunday, Maryland State Fairgrounds, Timonium, MD.

October 9-10, 2004 Great Scale Model Train Show - Timonium 9-4 Saturday, 10-4 Sunday, Maryland State Fairgrounds, Timonium, MD.

November 7, 2004 Railroad, Steamship, Transportation Artifacts Show 9 AM - 4 PM Montgomery County Fairgrounds, Gaithersburg, MD


Thursday Oct. 16, 2003 7 PM Chapter Meeting program by Phil Snyder - Cross Country Part 3 = AZ to LA to Philadelphia

Thursday Nov. 17, 2003 7 PM Chapter Meeting program by Bill Folger

Sunday Dec. 7, 2003 5 PM Holiday Dinner program by Steve Barry at Maximillian's INSTEAD OF normal monthly meeting

Thursday Jan. 15, 2004 7 PM Chapter Meeting program by ?

Thursday Feb. 19, 2004 7 PM Chapter Meeting program by ?\

Thursday March 20, 2004 7 PM Chapter Meeting program by Mike Burkhart

The Wilmington Chapter of the National Railway Historical Society (NRHS) meets at 7:00 PM on the third Thursday of each month [except August & December] in the Darley Room at the Claymont Community Center on Green Street in Claymont, Delaware.      Visitors are always welcome. Admission to regular meetings is free. Check out our Website, thanks to Russ Fox at:

The Transfer Table
   The Transfer Table is published six to ten times per year as the newsletter of the Wilmington Chapter of the National Railway Historical Society.  Items in this publication do not represent the official position of either Officers or Members of the Wilmington Chapter or the Editor of this publication.

    Permission to reprint articles and news items appearing herein is granted to NRHS Chapters and other newsletters provided appropriate credit is given.   Contributions are always welcome and should be sent to the editor at or send to: P.O. Box 1136, Hockessin, DE 19707-5136. Deadline for entries is the 25th of the month.

    Chapter Officers
    President:   Phil Snyder
    Vice President & Historian:  Ron Cleaves
    Treasurer:   Ralph Stevens, Jr.
    Secretary:   Dan Frederick
    National Director:   Tom Posatko
    Editor:  Greg Ajamian
    Education Fund:   Ed Thornton
    Public Relations:    Frank Ferguson, Jr.
    Trip Director & Event Photographer:  Bruce Barry
    Web Master:   Russ Fox

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